GPR40 mediates free fatty acid-induced insulin secretion in beta cells. We investigated the safety, pharmacokinetics, and glucose response of MK-8666, a partial GPR40 agonist, after once-daily multiple dosing in type 2 diabetes patients. This double-blind, multisite, parallel-group study randomized 63 patients (placebo, n = 18; 50 mg, n = 9; 150 mg, n = 18; 500 mg, n = 18) for 14-day treatment. The results showed no serious adverse effects or treatment-related hypoglycemia. One patient (150-mg group) showed mild-to-moderate transaminitis at the end of dosing. Median MK-8666 Tmax was 2.0-2.5 h and mean apparent terminal half-life was 22-32 h. On Day 15, MK-8666 reduced fasting plasma glucose by 54.1 mg/dL (500 mg), 36.0 mg/dL (150 mg), and 30.8 mg/dL (50 mg) more than placebo, consistent with translational pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model predictions. Maximal efficacy for longer-term assessment is projected at 500 mg based on exposure-response analysis. In conclusion, MK-8666 was generally well tolerated with robust glucose-lowering efficacy.